The Isle of Man TT Races: Politics, Economics and National Identity
The Isle of Man TT races are an anachronism: a throwback to the days when men were men, and danger was a face to be laughed in … The TT, 100 years old this week, could well be the most dangerous sporting event on earth. (Goodhart)
The Isle of Man is an unusual place to hold a motorcycle race. It is an offshore location with limited travel links to the world outside and it is costly to travel to. Closing roads and allowing motorcycles to race around them at high speed is an inconvenience to the local people. Perhaps stranger than this is that the Tourist Trophy (TT) motorcycle race has survived for 100 years. The races have been criticised at points throughout their history, and they have lost their status as a world championship race. With the increase in speed, the TT has become increasingly dangerous, yet in 2007 motorcycle enthusiasts from across the world gathered on the Isle of Man to celebrate the centenary of the event.
The purpose of this article is not to describe the TT and by doing so describe the winners and losers, the details of specific races and the thrills and spills of the event. Its point is to consider why the TT races became established on the Isle of Man and, further, why the TT races have continued despite criticism, technological change and the undeniable inconvenience of their location. Since 1907, the races have gradually become ingrained in the external perception of the Isle of Man and, during the inter-war years and beyond, within the Manx consciousness.
Three factors explain the TT’s endurance: First, the TT reflects, and indeed its survival has depended upon, the political evolution of the island. The origins and the continuation of the races cannot be understood without understanding the changing Manx constitution. Second, the TT became valued for economic reasons, being championed by manufacturers as a showcase for their machines and, very importantly, being exploited by interest groups on the island. Third, the TT has become part of Manx identity, not only in the way others see the Manx but also as the Manx see themselves. For this reason, the TT races have become something distinguishing, an identifier of the Isle of Man.
To understand why the motorcycle TT was established on the Isle of Man in 1907, we must look back to 1904 and the origins of motor car racing on the island. On 15 March 1904, motor racing, initially trials for the 1904 Gordon Bennett race, was imposed on the Manx people. After winning the 1902 Gordon Bennett Race, the English were obliged to stage the event in 1903. Motor racing on public roads remained illegal in England, but the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland were able to hold a race in Ireland, another quasi-colonial place that at this time lacked self-government. In 1903 the passing of the Light Locomotives (Ireland) Act, passed by MPs in Westminster, set a precedent for Manx legislation in 1904. The Act which legalised road racing on the Isle of Man, the Highways (Light Locomotive) Act 1904, was imposed by the Lieutenant Governor, Lord Raglan, a member of the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland (ACGBI), on behalf of his cousin Julian Orde, secretary of the ACGBI. It was not something about which the Manx people or even the Manx legislature had much say. At this time, by the constitution and prevailing political practice, the Legislative Council (the upper chamber of the Manx legislature) was filled with the governor’s nominees and Crown appointees. When the Bill was supposedly being debated, the printed version had not even been received from the printers, and it passed with minimal comment.
The House of Keys, the lower chamber, was not quite so quick to pass the Bill. Some Members of the House of Keys (MHKs) suggested that passing the legislation so speedily was absurd, with one member arguing that the passage of the Bill was not a matter of “such extreme urgency … that we should in the face of all precedent read the Bill first, second and third times—because that is what is intended—a Bill we have never seen, it is really making ourselves a laughing stock” (Isle of Man, Debates, 1904). Nevertheless the Bill was passed, in a single day, without any objections being taken into account. It was, however, only valid until 31 December 1904, to authorise the Gordon Bennett trials for motor cars which took place on the Isle of Man in May of that year.
When the Automobile Club wished to hold further motor racing trials on the island in 1905, further legislation approving racing on public roads was required. This legislation, the Highways (Motorcar) Act 1905, was swiftly passed and indeed made permanent, needing only a resolution of Tynwald to renew legislation year by year. With the new legislation now in place authorising road racing, including motorcycle racing, the way was paved for the first motorcycle TT race to take place on the Isle of Man in 1907. It is widely believed that this race resulted from dissatisfaction amongst members of the Auto Cycle Union (ACU), motorcycle manufacturers and other enthusiasts with the International Cup Motorcycle Race, which had been held in Europe since 1905 (Kelly 91). This motorcycle race would be largely modelled on the Automobile Club’s Tourist Trophy race, the inaugural event of which had been held in 1905 on the Isle of Man. Thus, the establishment of the motorcycle TT was undoubtedly made easier by the legislation that had been imposed on the Isle of Man in 1904. Motorcycle races then took place each year between 1907 and 1914, with little protest in the Isle of Man. However, concerns were raised about the safety of the motor car TT in 1908 by The Times, and issues of the usefulness to manufacturers of the motorcycle TT were expressed in 1912 by a small section of unidentified motorcycle manufacturers.
World War One interrupted the continuity of the TT. It could have permanently put an end to the races. Indeed there was little reason to assume that they would be revived, since they were not yet being used to publicise the island. Although manufacturers were using the races as a test bed for machines, if there had been political objections to the revival this might have led to the termination of the races. But this did not happen and political support in the Isle of Man fell firmly behind the races. The races restarted and continued, despite efforts to take them away from the Isle of Man during the early 1920s when a small section of the motorcycle community and members of the House of Commons were lobbying, unsuccessfully, for road racing to be legalised in England.
However, when motorcycle racing did return to the Isle of Man in 1920 this was not the result of an authoritarian imposition by the new Lieutenant Governor, Sir William Fry. This was partly the result of the 1919 reform of the Manx constitution, which alongside fixing the governor’s term of office to seven years also reformed the Legislative Council, so that it now contained two Deemsters, the Lord Bishop and the Attorney General, two nominees from the Lieutenant Governor, but most importantly four members elected by the House of Keys. The decisions to revive the motorcycle TT in 1920 and to extend legislation for motor racing in 1922, which had lapsed in 1921, were made by Tynwald. As a result of the presence of elected members in the Legislative Council, there was less chance of imposed legislation. The resumption of the races after World War One, therefore, reflects the changed politics of the Isle of Man.
During the inter-war years this political commitment continued. It was confirmed in 1928 when the principal authorising legislation was amended to allow roads to be closed so that riders could practise before the races. Debates in 1928 revealed much support, as did Lieutenant Governor Sir Claude Hill’s creation of an annual grant of £5,000 to the ACU in 1929, £1,500 of which would be prize money and £3,500 aid for competitors travelling to the Isle of Man from the British Empire and foreign countries. The government’s support was intended to garner international goodwill, with the races becoming a more cosmopolitan event (Isle of Man, Debates, 1928, 1929; Loughborough 12, Curwen Clague 102-103). The races were also reviewed by a committee of Tynwald in 1937, but political support was unwavering and the financial support for the races was maintained. The Committee’s report concluded that “We regard the Races as of great value to the Island in the early part of the season, and we recommend that the expenditure of £3,500 which has now been paid for some years should be continued.” It went further, stating that, “Bearing in mind the undoubted publicity which results from the TT Races and the expense involved by the Auto Cycle Union in carrying them out, it would seem that this is not an unreasonable figure" (Isle of Man, Report, 1937: 4). By 1937 the £5,000, which had originally been supplied as a contribution to be made to the ACU, had been reduced, albeit only to £3,500. The £1,500 which had originally been set aside for prize money was now being donated as financial assistance towards other racing events on the island, which included £800 to the Manx Grand Prix Committee, £200 to the June Effort Committee to promote an International TT Bicycle Race, and £500 to promote an Aeroplane Race (Isle of Man, Report, 1937: 6).
As a result of the growing political commitment during the inter-war years it was very unlikely that the outbreak of World War Two would signal the end of the TT races, whereas that had been a possibility in 1914. By now there was a strong commitment to the races, which was not likely to be politically challenged. After 1945, two reports were commissioned to consider the future of motor racing on the island. Following an appraisal in 1946 of the contribution made to the ACU, it was decided that provisions should be made in the Manx budget to meet the expenses of the Manx Grand Prix, but it was not possible to hold a TT race in 1946. For this reason a further report was commissioned later in 1946 with the purpose of considering the financial contribution to be made to the ACU for supporting the TT in 1947. The report suggested that in 1939, despite the contribution of £3,500 to the ACU towards the running of the races, a financial loss had been made by the Union. The 1947 report therefore recommended that a contribution of £6,000 should be made to the ACU for the purpose of holding the TT on the island. In 1948 a further report considered the matter of the £6,000 contribution which had been made in 1947 and considered this to be a reasonable amount. It therefore recommended this be given once again in 1948 (Isle of Man, Report, 1948: 3). Thus, by 1948, an even larger financial commitment had been made by the Manx Government to the continuation of the TT. This was despite—or possibly because—the island was developing a more representative government and moving towards a ministerial system of government, with an elected Chief Minister by 1985.
Therefore, the TT had become politically accepted by elected representatives between the wars and certainly by the 1950s evidenced by the financial commitment made by the Manx legislature. We now need to consider why this was the case. It was the view of one councillor on the Douglas Residential and Boarding House Association, discussing the 1955 Report of the Isle of Man Visiting Industry Commission, that:
We have three big sporting events which take place when Wakes do not occur. The T.T. races in early June, the cycle races a fortnight later, and the Grand Prix Races at the back end of the season. All of these things happened accidentally on the Isle of Man. No Government body, no Municipal body in any way encouraged or supported them. They were purely accidental. A group of dirty little lads got going on motorcycles, when everybody was horrified by them, and started the T.T. races; they were unobserved and unhelped for years until it was seen that it could be helpful to the visiting industry. (54)
Despite the obvious historical inaccuracies of this account, it does contain one important truth. It is nowadays indubitably recognised that the TT races have a strong economic value to manufacturers and sponsors and to the Isle of Man’s tourist industry. This outcome, particularly the latter, was not initially anticipated. The Manx barely recognised the economic value of the TT races between 1904 and 1914. Raglan had not imposed racing on the island to boost tourist figures, although it has been argued by some that this was indeed the case (Duckworth, Kermode, Kelly). Motor racing on the island was for the benefit and enjoyment of a small elite and was of advantage only to a handful of motor car and motorcycle manufacturers.
True, the promotional value of the races was used by the motorcycle and motor car industry to help boost sales even before 1914, and this was reflected in advertisements in the Manx press, British press, motorcycle magazines and at the races. For instance, Norton used their success in the 1907 TT to develop their motorcycles and carried this on into the inter-war years. What is more, the Indian motorcycle company, based in the USA, came to the public’s attention following a clean sweep of victories in 1911. Between the wars the number of manufacturers and teams increased, and the TT became more of a showcase for new products. Advertising demonstrates, on a larger scale, that the TT was a potential market, not only for motorcycle manufacturers, but also for tyre manufacturers, oil and fuel suppliers and brake manufacturers, to name a few. By the 1950s and 60s these interests were becoming even more apparent at the races. Indeed, the TT should be regarded as an early model of capitalist investment in spectacle and stars. “Ixion”, a correspondent in The Motor Cycle, identified the interests of the manufacturer in 1951 in Motor Cycle Cavalcade. The manufacturer, he suggested, might argue that he
cannot afford not to race. My duty to customers demands that I give them the best machines possible. This implies that I must perfect roadholding, steering, brakes, control and reliability by all means in my power. My experience is that every race teaches me something new. (Ixion 140)
So what value did the TT have? Ixion believed that although the “T.T. races have been much maligned,” it was “indisputable that they transformed the primitive motorcycle from a flimsy toy into a well-nigh perfect two wheeler, in which it is now impossible to fault any feature essential for safety” (140).
However, this only explains why manufacturers wanted to come back to the Isle of Man and why they did so each year. It does not explain why the Manx government wanted to receive them. Manx economic interest was important here. In 1920, when the revival of the TT was being considered, the potential of the races to advertise the island was for the first time clearly recognised by some MHKs and members of the Legislative Council. One Manx politician, the Chairman of the Highway Board which was responsible for organising the race on the island, argued, “I think it is well known that the last cycle races were a means of bringing a large number of people to the Island, and that the Island largely benefits by these people” (Isle of Man, Debates, 1920). Further to this, in 1928 one MHK highlighted the potential publicity for the island brought about by the growing cosmopolitan nature of the event:
We have machines here from all parts of the world; Italian, Spanish and French journalists here. German machines and German journalists. As far as advertising is concerned, the Isle of Man is in a wonderful position not only throughout the British Islands, but throughout the world, and it would be a pity if anything was done to prevent the cyclists from coming here. (Isle of Man, Debates, 1928)
Before the First World War the tourist industry had begun to make a huge contribution to the island’s economy. This was realised by the Commission for Local Industry’s Report in 1900, which noted that demand for labour within the visiting industry was even making it difficult to obtain labour for other industries. Walton points out that by this time, Douglas was noted for “informality and easy mixing …The impressive boarding houses along the Loch promenade took in between 50-100 visitors at a time” (Walton 91). 1913 saw a record number of people visit the island, 634,512 (Isle of Man, Summer Passenger Arrivals), and it was expected that even more would visit in 1914.
The island’s tourist industry inevitably suffered during the First World War, and so the TT races were subsequently adopted as a unique selling point. Although Manx politicians had realised the potential publicity value of the races, publicity was carried out at the instigation of a committee from the Manx Motor Cycle Club after a meeting in 1922. Thereafter and throughout the inter-war years as the island sought to attract visitors, the TT races were heavily marketed. If the Isle of Man were going to boost its economy, suffering from the decline of fishing, farming and industries such as mining, then it had to attract visitors (Birch). This was recognised by the Isle of Man Board of Advertising. Accordingly, during the inter-war years the races were included in the advertising material for the island such as posters put out by the Board .The value of the races to advertise the island became, therefore, one of the main reasons for their revival and for their continued support.
With the addition of the TT races to the island’s portfolio of Celtic and Norse attractions, beautiful scenery and the increasingly lively atmosphere in Douglas, we can see the beginnings of the island’s long economic association with the TT. This explains why the Manx government even contributed financially to the ACU after 1930, as was confirmed in the Report to Examine Motor Car and other Races 1937. Moreover, this commitment continued and indeed was increased after World War Two (Isle of Man, Reports, 1947, 1948). The continuation of racing after 1945 therefore owed much to the event’s financial power. The Isle of Man Weekly Times commented, “no one with any common sense has questioned the value of the TT races to the Isle of Man” (6). True, during the early 1950s, it can be seen that the week of the TT, being the first week of June was only the third best week of the summer season. Visitor figures between 1952 and 1955 attest to this. An average of 552,000 people visited the island between May and September in each of these years. Of these an average of 118,143 visited in June, compared to an average of 204,997 in July and 161,374 in August (Isle of Man, Summer Passenger Arrivals; Isle of Man, Report, 1955). Nevertheless, the TT, coming early in the season, boosted the numbers coming to the Isle of Man, especially given that the average figure for May totalled only 22,613 visitors. This marked a change. As the Isle of Man Weekly Times put it, “it used to be said that TT week started the season. It is certainly true in 1947” (6).
The profitability of the races, for both the Manx and motorcycle manufacturers (and other industries), therefore increased as the popularity of the races increased. This has continued into the present day. It has become increasingly costly to travel to the Isle of Man during TT fortnight, with interest groups such as the Isle of Man Steam Packet raising fares in response to increased demand. Smaller interests groups also take advantage of the popularity of the races and there are great benefits to be had for hoteliers, owners of campsites and indeed sellers of beer.
The political acceptance of the races and their increasing economic value to the island has meant that they have become ingrained within Manx identity, both in the internal and external perceptions of the island. First, it has become increasingly clear that the TT races have become strongly associated with the Isle of Man by those who do not live there. This is demonstrated by the huge influx of people from across the world who come to the Isle of Man during the TT fortnight—for instance 50,000 people and 19,000 motorcycles were expected in 2007—and by unbroken coverage of the races within motorcycle magazines and the national press. For example, in 2005 The Guardian described how “every year 40,000 leather clad bikers make their pilgrimage to what they describe as the best festival of their sport. It is about celebrating fraternity and a way of life” (Gillan).
Throughout the history of the races, particularly after 1920, the TT was already becoming part of the external perception of the island, even before it was viewed as an identifying feature internally. Throughout the inter-war years, motorcycle magazines published in Britain contained sizeable reports on the TT, placing the Isle of Man on an international stage. During the inter-war years, in addition to the usual race reports, Motor Cycle included short stories in its TT editions which would fictionalise the TT, but at the same time, touch on the importance of the races to manufacturers, racing teams and young working-class men. Titles of short stories included, for example, “The Lone Hand: A Tribute to the Single-Handed TT Entrant” (1927), “The Piston: Jack was a Nobody until He Was Left Alone to Fight a Foreign Challenge” (1931), and “Pacemaker’s Luck: How a Young Rider Was Given the Job of Breaking up a Fast Rival: A Tale of T.T. Tactics” (1936).
By the 1930s newsreels had begun to report the successes and failures of the races in the British cinema, something which helped to publicise riders such as Stanley Woods in the 1930s and Geoff Duke in the 1950s. One important source from this period is George Formby’s 1936 film No Limit. This film reveals the external perception of the races in two ways. First, the footage shot at the 1935 TT races reflects the style of the newsreels of the time. It demonstrates the popularity of the races and shows the bustling grandstand, crowds of spectators around the course, and indeed advertising around the route. Second, even though George Shuttleworth (Formby’s character) wants to race in the Isle of Man, the film offers no explanation where the Isle of Man is or what the races are. It is assumed that the audience will know. The fact that the film was made at all and that it was Formby’s most popular film, further demonstrates the popularity of the event.
While external perceptions of the Isle of Man commonly associate it with the TT races, internal perceptions are more complex, though the TT was and remains important. The most common internal perception of the Isle of Man used to be as a Celtic/Norse society, famed for its myths and legends, as expressed by local writers and poets. Consequently, it was considered an island distinct from and not part of the UK. Whilst there was and indeed still is a conscious effort to promote the island’s association with a distant past, the TT has also become part of the Manx consciousness. It has been suggested, for instance, that “The Isle of Man basks in the title ‘road racing capital of the world’” (Bazin 409), and that the TT is “a salient part of the Manx consciousness” (Faragher 410). The key questions to answer then are first, why do the Manx perceive that the Isle of Man is the venue of the TT and, second, how far do the Manx go to defend their races?
The Manx people cannot forget that the Isle of Man is the venue for the TT. Residents are reminded of this everyday. The TT is written into the landscape. The course was and is used daily by motorists, since the TT roads for many are the way to and from their place of work. The grandstand and scoreboard in Douglas were and are also ever-present reminders that a motor race starts and finishes at that point. A TT memorial was constructed in Douglas cemetery in 2006, opposite the grandstand and was placed amongst memorials to those who had spent their lives on the island, suggesting that the TT and those who have ridden in it are worthy of memorialisation on the Isle of Man. There are other reminders, such as the names given to particular corners of the course to commemorate riders or events. Even the smoothly surfaced roads and the hay bales tied to stone walls on dangerous corners are reminders that the Isle of Man is the home of the TT races. These aspects are a result of the heritage of the event and its taking place on the island over the past 100 years.
The Manx have faced criticism of their races, in the past and in the present, but the races have continued regardless. Resistance to criticism reveals and confirms the identification many Manx have with their TT. Particular attention has often been focused by outsiders on the danger and deaths. Indeed, in 2003 Sports Illustrated asked the question “is there a sporting event more perilous than the Tourist Trophy races on the Isle of Man?” and argued that the “festival of speed is how boosters on this tiny Irish Sea island bill its annual mad scramble of mopeds, motorcycles and motor scooters. Dead is how participants often wind up” (Lidz). This is nothing new. As far back as 1908, protests were made about the speed and danger of the races. The Times, in 1908, campaigned against the “four-inch” motor car race on the grounds that racing cars with four inch cylinders, capable of reaching 80 mph severely increased the risk of racing. One Manxman was quick to leap to the defence of the races, writing to the Isle of Man Weekly Times that the Manx should “vindicate [their] home rule!” Readers were told that they should “Stop following Englishmen and have your motor races and any others you like!” (Dweller 4). This was an early attempt to be different, to cut against the English grain in a period when political reform and increased independence from Westminster was high on the political agenda on the Isle of Man. It might also have been the case that the Manx would decide to end their association with the TT in 1927 when one rider, Archie Birkin, was killed when practising for the race, but the reaction of the Manx legislature was defensive. Legislation was amended and roads were to be closed for practising before the TT.
The constant association of the Manx with the TT has been reflected in much writing on the TT from within the island. The following paragraph from the 1954 TT programme shows the link between the Manx people and the TT, albeit from one man’s point of view. Here “we,” “us” and “our” are powerful words in associating the Manx with the TT and the Isle of Man. Stenning, a Manx resident for forty-five years, concluded that:
Year by year we on the Island look forward with the greatest pleasure to the coming of the A.C.U. and the attendant train of riders and manufacturers. We look forward to renewing old friendships, making new associations which we trust will last for many years … welcoming competitors from all parts of the earth, welcoming foreign machines (for we realise that competition is the back bone of success) … So we on the Island bid you welcome, and hail your arrival with great pleasure. It is true you bring us wealth, but to the great majority of us that is no concern. We like to hear of new machines, new designs, new devices, new speeds, but these are small matters to us compared with the human side, the personal contact with you all … look upon us … as people who welcome you all, who appreciate you fully, who hope you will come again to our lovely island. (Stenning 23, emphasis added)
In this way we can assess the insular point of view by looking at the language used by the Manx in writing about the TT races, in publications such as TT race programmes and in Manx newspapers and other material. Stenning wrote pieces for TT programmes which took an insular point of view. Writing as a resident, Stenning groups the Manx together in their enthusiasm for the races. He clearly describes the place of the TT in the identification of the island by its residents.
The TT is, therefore, worth serious attention and not just because it provides theatre for a few days. Studying the TT allows us better to understand the culture that has sustained it. The TT was politically imposed, but gradually became incorporated and supported in different political circumstances. This incorporation was due to—and in turn led to—the economic benefits the races brought to the Manx people, as well as to overseas manufacturers. This in turn has led to the embedding of the TT within Manx identity. The TT has become a central part of the Manx place myth (Urry). Just as those living in the Lake District associate themselves with William Wordsworth, the Lake poet, so the Manx associate themselves with the TT races. The Manx sense of self may still look back to old traditions such as the Celtic or the Norse, but they have also embraced aspects of modernity, especially technology and speed, one manifestation of which, motorcycle racing, has been sustained on the Isle of Man for the past 100 years.
1 The centenary was celebrated by some with the organisation of the TT100 conference on the Isle of Man, at which this paper was first presented. This article is based on doctoral research at Lancaster University in the UK, which has been supported by the Manx Heritage Foundation and Isle of Man Department of Education.
2 The Gordon Bennett Cup had been designed by American newspaperman James Gordon Bennett, who had come to Paris to found the continental edition of the New York Herald. He was keen on sport and became a founder member of the French Automobile Club. The Gordon Bennett Cup Race was proposed in 1900 as a “regularised international motor race to evidence the advance of the nations in motor car construction” (Holliday 11).
3 This is also made clear by the lack of discussion of the Bill in the Legislative Council minutes (1892-1906), which documented proceedings in the chamber.
4 There is little discussion of this Bill in the House of Keys Journal, supporting further the fact that this legislation was forced through by Raglan.
5 This is the first year that the Isle of Man was referred to as the “Isle of Manslaughter.” Information concerning the campaign against the “four-inch” race (for cars with four inch cylinders) was taken from The Times, Motoring Illustrated and Isle of Man Weekly Times.
6 For references to the impropriety of closing public roads for motor racing and the stupidity of the Manx for doing see Home Office file HO45/17413, Motor, Motor Cycle and Cycle Races on Public Roads 1924-1929 (National Archives, London).
7 The MacDonnell Commission recommended these reforms in 1911, but as a result of war and the obduracy of the then governor, Lord Raglan, they were not implemented until after the end of World War One.
8 Wakes weeks were a regular summer break in the mill towns of Lancashire, with each locality nominating a “Wakes week” where cotton mills would all close at the same time. This week would eventually see workers taking seaside holidays, with the development of the railway, and also holidaying on the Isle of Man by the beginning of the twentieth century.
9 Ads for motorcycles and motorcycle products are shown in TT programmes, on the front covers of motorcycle magazines, in the Manx press, on newsreels and in film of the TT. These ads generally celebrate the success of a particular brand at the TT, whilst not having explicitly to refer to the Isle of Man TT: the location was immediately understood.
10 These are Isle of Man Steam Packet estimations from 2007, included in a letter sent to all customers, February 27, 2007, which, also stated that in 2006, 35,000 passengers and 9,500 motorcycles sailed to the Island for the TT.
12 Most notably, Thomas .E. Brown (1830-1897) poet whose verse comments on Manx life before 1900. Hall Caine (1853-1931) a novelist and later an MHK whose work includes The Manxman. Sophia Morrison (1860-1917) involved in collecting Manx folk tales and a key member in the founding of the Manx Language Society 1899. Arthur.W. Moore (1863-1909), published the two volumes History of the Isle of Man (1900) amongst other works, see http://www.isle -of-man.com/Manxnotebook/fulltext/toc_awm.htm. Moore was also involved in the Manx Language Society.
13 See Billig, Banal Nationalism, in which he introduces the “homeland deixis,” the use of words such as “we,” “us” and “our” in politicians’ speeches and newspapers and the use of these words in bringing people together with a shared identity because of banal, everyday symbols of nationalism and identity. (Billig 1-12, 93-127).
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